Louis Wirth (August 28, – May 3, ) was an American sociologist and member of the His interests included city life, minority group behaviour and mass media and he is recognised as one of the leading urban sociologists. Wirth writes that urbanism is a form of social organisation that is harmful to culture , and. Louis Wirth posits similar reasons for the differences in the urban and rural milieu as does Georg Simmel. Wirth argues that the shift between. Louis Wirth has mentioned four characteristics of urban system or urbanism Following Louis Wirth, Urbanism is a way of life, is characterised by extensive.
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Personal disorganization, mental breakdown, suicide, delinquency, crime, corruption, and disorder might be expected under these circumstances to be more prevalent in the urban than in the rural community.
No single group has the undivided allegiance of the individual.
The characterization of a community as urban on the basis of size alone is obviously arbitrary The City as a Symbol of Civilization. It has not only tolerated but rewarded individual differences.
The urban world puts a premium on visual recognition. Retrieved from ” https: The family was Jewish and both of his parents were religiously active.
This historic influence is reinforced by the circumstances that the population of the city itself is in large measure recruited from the countryside, where a mode of life reminiscent of this earlier form of existence persists.
The advantage that the corporation has over the individual entrepreneur and the partnership in the urban-industrial world derives not only from the possibility it affords of centralizing the resources of thousands of individuals or from the legal privilege of limited liability and perpetual succession, but from the fact that the corporation has no soul.
Presidents of the American Sociological Association. The dominance of the city over the surrounding hinterland becomes explicable in terms of the division of labor which urban life occasions and promotes. The specialization of individuals, particularly in their occupations, can proceed only, as Adam Smith pointed out, upon the basis of an enlarged market, which in turn accentuates the division of labor.
Lundberg Rupert B. According to some, urbanism Indicate a wide acquaintance with things and people. As he himself suggests at several points, the notion of size, density and heterogeneity is much more helpful if we include the word ‘relative’ in the definition.
Merton Robin M. Nor do these groups easily permit of a concentric arrangement so that the narrower ones fall within the circumference of the more inclusive ones, eay is more likely to be the case in the rural community or in primitive societies. Some cities have less norm and role conflicts, social change, mobility, individualism and impersonality than others.
Urbanism as a Way of Life: Concept and Characteristics
A number of sociological propositions concerning the relationship between A numbers of population, B density of settlement, C heterogeneity of inhabitants and group life can be formulated on the basis of observation and research. They give primary emphasis to their own interests and personal happiness, they develop the attitude towards competition, conflict in relation to economic goods and social position.
The concept of the urban way of life becomes more controversial when the features of size, density and heterogeneity are used to explain or to infer. Wirth’s major contribution to social theory of urban space was a classic essay Urbanism as a Way of Lifepublished in the American Journal of Sociology in Were it not for the attraction and suggestions that the city exerts through these instrumentalities upon the rural population, the differences between the rural and the urban modes of life2 would he even greater than they are.
The personal traits, the occupations, the cultural life, and the ideas of the members of an urban community may, therefore, be expected to range between more widely separated poles than those of rural inhabitants. It has brought together people from the ends of the earth because they are different and thus useful to one another, rather than because they are homogeneous and like-minded.
Place and nature of work, income, racial and ethnic characteristics, social status, custom, habit, taste, preference, and prejudice are among the significant factors in accordance with which the urban population is selected and distributed into more or less distinct settlements. In a community composed of a larger number of individuals than can know one another intimately and can be assembled in one spot, it becomes necessary to communicate through indirect media and to articulate individual interests by a process of delegation.
The increased dominance of secondary relationships was believed to be a feature of urbanization. Frequently there is only the most tenuous relationship between the economic position or other basic factors that determine the individual’s existence in the urban world and the voluntary groups11 with which he is affiliated.
The urban people learn how to lead different lives in different circumstances.
Urbanism as a Way of Life: Concept and Characteristics
Density as in the case of numbers, so in the case of concentration in limited space certain consequences of relevance in sociological analysis of the city emerge.
The superficiality, the anonymity7, and the transitory character of urban social relations make intelligible, also, the sophistication and the rationality generally ascribed to city-dwellers. They saw these patterns in terms of airth struggle for survival against impersonal forces. Urbanism is a special concept which Inherits within itself all the characters connected with Urbanization and the urban way of life. Frequent close physical contact, coupled with great social distance, accentuates the reserve of with individuals toward one another and, unless compensated by other opportunities for response, gives rise to loneliness.
By virtue of his different interests arising out of different aspects of urbanims life, the individual acquires membership in widely divergent groups, each of which functions only with reference to a single segment of his personality.
So, the result is lack of intimate relationship. The necessary frequent movement of great numbers of individuals in a congested habitat causes friction and irritation.
The danger here was the tendency to confuse “urban” with wieth features of social organization such as the expansion of the capitalist market, industrialization, the growth of scientific knowledge and of improved communications.
Thus, for instance, the low and declining urban-reproduction rates suggest that the city with not conducive to the traditional type of family life, including the rearing of children and the maintenance of the home as the locus of a whole round of vital activities. Thus the larger, the more densely populated, and the more heterogeneous a community, the more accentuated the characteristics associated with urbanism will be. So there is decline in the significance of traditional and sacred things.
Chicago University Presspp Reduced to a stage of virtual impotence as an individual, the urbanite is bound to exert himself by joining with others of similar interest into groups organized to obtain his ends. Generally, a larger proportion of the adult-urban population is gainfully employed than is the case with the adult-rural population.